22 Interesting Facts about Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress (INC), often referred to as the Congress Party, is one of India’s oldest and most prominent political parties. It has played a pivotal role in the country’s struggle for independence and post-independence politics. The INC was founded in 1885 and played a crucial role in India’s fight for independence from British colonial rule. It served as a platform for leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Sardar Patel to advocate for a free and united India.

The INC was the first major political party in India to have a female president. In 1917, Annie Besant, a British socialist and theosophist, served as the party’s president, breaking gender barriers at the time. The INC’s symbol, the “hand,” is often interpreted as a symbol of unity and solidarity. It reflects the party’s commitment to inclusivity and representing the diverse population of India.

The INC played a pivotal role in various campaigns and movements for India’s independence, such as the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Civil Disobedience Movement, and the Quit India Movement, all of which contributed to India’s eventual freedom in 1947. After independence, the INC remained a dominant political force in India. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, was a prominent leader of the party, shaping the country’s early post-independence policies. The Indian National Congress continues to be a significant political party in India’s democracy, and its history is closely intertwined with the nation’s struggle for freedom and its journey in the post-independence era.

Indian National Congress Flag

Indian National Congress Flag

It’s a good idea to look at these 22 interesting facts about Indian National Congress to know more about it.

  1. Founding Year: The INC was founded on December 28, 1885, during British colonial rule, making it one of the oldest political parties in India.
  2. All India Session: The first INC session was held in Bombay (now Mumbai) and was attended by 72 delegates from different parts of the country.
  3. Formation Catalyst: The INC was founded due to the efforts of prominent leaders like Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, Dinshaw Wacha, Monomohun Ghose, William Wedderburn, and others.
  4. First President: Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee, a prominent lawyer, was the first president of the INC.
  5. Gandhi’s Leadership: Mahatma Gandhi became the leader of the Indian National Congress during India’s struggle for independence, and he is often associated with the party’s prominence during that era.
  6. Non-Cooperation Movement: Under Gandhi’s leadership, the INC launched the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920, advocating nonviolent resistance to British colonial rule.
  7. Civil Disobedience Movement: The INC also led the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930, which included the famous Salt March to protest the British salt tax.
  8. Quit India Movement: In 1942, the INC launched the Quit India Movement, demanding an end to British rule. It led to mass protests and arrests of Indian leaders.
  9. Flag of INC: The Indian National Congress has its own flag, which consists of three horizontal stripes in saffron, white, and green, with a spinning wheel (charkha) in the center.
  10. Independence Resolution: The historic “Purna Swaraj” or “Complete Independence” resolution was passed by the INC in its Lahore session on December 31, 1929.
  11. Indira Gandhi’s Leadership: Indira Gandhi, daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, was the first female Prime Minister of India and a prominent leader of the INC.
  12. Split in the Party: The INC has witnessed several splits in its history. The most notable one occurred in 1969 when it split into the Congress (O) led by Morarji Desai and the Congress (R) led by Indira Gandhi.
  13. Alliance with Other Parties: The INC has often formed alliances with regional and other national parties to contest elections at the state and national levels.
  14. Congress Party Symbol: The official symbol of the INC is a hand, which symbolizes unity and the strength of the people.
  15. Political Dominance: The INC was the dominant political party in India for several decades after independence and played a significant role in shaping the nation’s early policies.
  16. Electoral Victories: The INC has won multiple general elections in India, securing a majority of seats in the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and state legislative assemblies.
  17. Emergency Period: During the Emergency period from 1975 to 1977, many political opponents and activists were arrested, and civil liberties were curtailed under the leadership of Indira Gandhi.
  18. Youth Wing: The Indian Youth Congress and the National Students’ Union of India (NSUI) are the youth and student wings of the INC, respectively.
  19. Social and Economic Reforms: The INC has introduced several social and economic reforms in India, including land reforms and the Green Revolution.
  20. Party Splits and Alliances: The INC has been involved in multiple political alliances and splits over the years, aligning with various parties at different points in time.
  21. Current Status: While the INC has faced challenges and competition from other political parties in recent years, it continues to be a prominent player in Indian politics, especially at the state level.
  22. Leadership Changes: The INC has seen multiple changes in leadership over the years, with various leaders serving as its presidents and shaping its direction.

The Indian National Congress (INC) holds a storied place in India’s history, having been at the forefront of the nation’s struggle for independence and post-independence political landscape. From its inception in 1885 to its role in shaping India’s early policies and governance, the INC has played a pivotal role in the country’s journey. Over the years, it has witnessed political shifts, alliances, and leadership changes, reflecting the dynamic nature of Indian politics. The INC’s legacy continues to influence and contribute to the nation’s political landscape, making it an enduring and significant force in India’s democracy.

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